40 dBu
FCC-Studio Regs
Audio Glossery
Iowa NCE 07
CPB-NPR road
My Lasrus

  You Be You with KUBU call letters were applied for February 19, 2009 by 88.7 New Bohemia Communications.

What is an MX situation?
After your group submitted your application, the FCC sorted them all to find out which ones are in competition with each other.  They use the term "mutually exclusive" (or shortened to "MX" for those on-the-go) to indicate that if one application is granted, then the other applications would not be able to be granted.   Applications that are MX'd with each other can either be applying for the same or an adjacent (close) frequency and the same geographic location, or there can be two stations whose broadcast area that just overlap each other.  If you have not heard anything about your group's status, you're probably in a larger MX group.  Your engineer  and/or lawyer should be keeping an eye out for your application in the MX group, and should contact you when you group comes up.  If you're in doubt, make sure you get in touch with your engineer/lawyer.  And your group can contact Prometheus if you've been unable to get information from these other locations.  

Also, it's really important (and your responsibility) to update the FCC with any changes in address or contact info.  We've worked with groups in the past that have lost their chance at a construction permit (CP) because their info was out of date.  If the FCC sends you a question (by letter, email, or phone) and you don't respond because your contact info is wrong, they wont bother chasing you down.  Instead  they'll just drop you from the process!  To change your contact info, simply log into your account on the FCC website that you used to file your application.  
Time line
1.Your MX group will get released (although your engineer should be able to tell you before your MX group is released how many applications you're in competition with and who they are)
2.You will have 30 days to file a technical amendment
3.A tentative selectee will be "accepted for filing".  "Accepted for filing" means that the FCC has taken a quick look at the application, and everything seems okay to announce them as the tentative "winners".  Keep in mind that the FCC does not check facts, but relies on the public commenting through the "Petition to Deny" to check facts on applications.  
4.There will be a 30 day window where you (or any other group) can file a "Petition to Deny" against the tentative selectee.  This would be where you would want to file any information that you've found on the

5.group/application/individuals that would preclude them from being able to hold the CP and eventually the license.   Petitions to Deny should be written and filed by a group's lawyer, although the group can and should work to research the material for the Petition to Deny (more on that later).
6.The tentative selectee will have 15 days to respond to the Petition to Deny.
7.So, the Petition to Deny will either  be granted-and the tentative selectee will get thrown out-or it will be denied.  If the Petition to Deny is rejected, there is still the chance to file a Petition for Reconsideration.  There has to be a very compelling and serious reason why the FCC should reverse it's decision.  Again, this needs to be done by a lawyer.
Daisy chains                            
If your MX group has been announced, then you know that those are the applications your are in competition with.  Out of that MX list, one of the groups will end up with a construction permit (and a license).   Again, it's important to stay in contact with you engineer and/or lawyer to find out when those MX listings are released.  

If your group has  not yet been announced, your group is probably part of what is called a "daisy chain".  So say for example my group, Pixie Stick Enthusiasts of Arizona, applied for a station in Winslow and we are MX'd with four groups.  One of those groups, Water Fowl Educational Fund, is based out of Holbrook-the next town over.  So out of our whole group, only one of our applications can get granted.   Got it so far?  Water Fowl Educational Fund, however, is MX'd with five groups in Snowflake, AZ.  Although my group is not directly connected to the groups in Snowflake, we are all linked together in a "daisy chain" of  MX'd applications.  And here's the real kicker: only ONE application from an entire daisy chain will get granted by the FCC.  When you consider that some daisy chains are so large they cross state lines and can contain more than twenty applications, it can start to make your brain hurt.  

Order of applications                      
The FCC likes to take care of the simpler applications first, and then build up to the Goliath mega daisy chains.   They've released the list of groups with four or less MX groups in March, and the list of groups with between 5 and 13 groups in June.  Both lists are on the Audio Division page of the FCC.  Scroll to the bottom of the page in the "Headlines" section.  The page is at www.fcc.gov/mb/audio.

The first list of MX groups was released March 7th, 2008 and is titled "Media Bureau Announces Groups of Mutually Exclusive Applications Submitted in the October 2007 Filing Window for Noncommercial Educational FM Stations, Public Notice, DA 08-536".The second group of MX applicants (those groups of 5 to 13) were released June 18th, 2008 and the list is titled "Media Bureau Identifies Groups of Mutually Exclusive Applications Submitted in the October 2007 Filing Window for Noncommercial Educational FM Stations, Public Notice, DA 08-1437"
You can download either list and take a look at which applicants are MX'd together.  If you haven't received any information about being in an MX group (and you haven't received a construction permit [CP]) then you're probably in a group larger than 13 and you'll have to wait until your group is released.

If your group has not yet been released, then you have a few options.  If you aren't already on the Stubblefield and NCE lists, you should get on them ASAP.  Stubblefield is a list where people involved in community radio across the country share info, swap strategies, and keep each other updated.  When the new MX lists are released they will go out across Stubblefield, and it's also a great place to run ideas by other people involved in radio.  The NCE list was created specifically for the NCE full power window, and has other NCE applicants on it.  If you sign up for either, make sure to send an introductory email out and let everyone know who you are and what your situation is!  Here's information on how to get on each list:  

NCE listserv:

So you're in an MX situation...Now What?
1.Double check your own application.  If you are claiming 1st or 2nd service, do you have the exhibits attached that show numbers?  Is the city of license listed on the application correct?  If you have Channel 6 TV interference, do you have the appropriate engineering exhibits attached?  Go over your application again, question by question, and comb it for any mistakes.  Are there any holes in your application that could be picked apart by your competition in the MX situation?  If there are any clerical mistakes (ex: misspelling of a name, missing exhibit, etc) you should submit an amendment or correction to the FCC immediately.  You can't gain extra points or alter your 307b status (1st /2nd service),  but you also don't want your application thrown out on a technicality.  
2.Look for a technical solution. Technical solutions are the ideal way to resolve MX situations, as it can save time, money and effort in the long run.  And it can also mean that more stations end up on the air.  If your group has been announced, you'll have 30 days to file a technical amendment with the FCC.  While you are able to make a change at any time to your application, this 30 day window is the ideal time to file an amendment.  You CANNOT, however, either increase your 307b numbers for 1st and/or 2nd service, or increase your points.  These deciding factors are thought to be frozen in a "snapshot" taken when you submitted your application.  
Get in touch with you engineer as soon as possible, and see if they might be able to make some modifications to your signal that can either (a) result in your group becoming a singleton and your application being granted (yay!) or (b) result in a smaller MX group that hopefully will remove some of your strongest competition.  A potentially effective strategy is to have your engineer approach the engineers of the groups that you are just barely MX'd with (those where your signals are just barely touching) to see if they can work together to make a technical solution.  And if they can, everybody wins.  It makes the FCC's hearts go a pitter-patter when applicants do their work for them and resolve their own MX groups.  Even if you are able to break apart some of your daisy chain it's advantageous to everyone in the long run, and can hopefully result in more community radio stations.  
While Prometheus can certainly help in some ways, the engineer (and lawyer) that helped you actually prepare your application will be able to provide the best and most detailed advice about your situation.   The money spent on good engineering is well worth it!
3.Find out how you stack up. A basic step you can take is to get copies of all your competitors' applications, and start to go over them.   If your MX group has been released, then you can find out who they are from that listing.  If your group has not yet been released, then you can contact your engineer and they can get you a list of who you are MX'd with.
Go here to search for their applications:


You can search by their name, location, or facility ID (among other ways).  You have to enter their name exactly how it appears on the application, so if you're having trouble pulling up their application then it may be because their name is off somehow.   If you're not sure of what their exact name is, you can do a wildcard search.  So say you know that another group that you're MX'd with has "Penny Pinchers" in it's name, but that's not the complete name.  You can search %Penny Pinchers% and anything with those words in its name will come up.  So in this example it would pull up the applications submitted by the National Penny Pinchers Federation AND Penny Pinchers of Michigan.  

The "info" section of the search results has a quick overview, but clicking on "Application" will bring up their actual application. Take some time to

look over their applications and see how strong it is in comparison to yours.  The biggest issue is if they are claiming 1st service and/or if they are claiming 2nd service, and how many people they are claiming on each.   As you should know from the application process, the group that claims to provide the 1st  noncommercial radio service to the largest number of people will win, no matter what (as long as it's over at least 2,000 people).   So if the Unicorns Against Illiteracy applicant group claims to provide the first noncommercial radio service to 5,000 people and I provide none, they would receive the license before me.   The points system only factors in if (a) no one claims 1st or 2nd service or (b) there's a tie or (c) the group that claims the most 1st/2nd service doesn't have more than a 5,000 difference between them and the group that claims the next largest 1st/2nd service.  Whew.

So it's worthwhile taking a look at your application, and then pulling up all your competitors' applications and evaluating them on 1st/2nd service, and then the points system. (If you need a refresher on how the points system works, contact us at Prometheus and we can send you materials).  See who it looks like comes out as the tentative winner, and you can see where your application stacks up.  

4.Don your Sherlock Holmes hat and start digging! Your group should start compiling information on all your competitors.  Start with the strongest applications, and work your way down the list.  This information is all important for compiling the Petition to Deny that you may choose to file if a competitor is named as the Tentative Selectee.  You should not go to them with the information right away, but you may choose to use it strategically to get them to withdraw their application or force them to settle with you (depending on what you find).   See the attached "Researching Your Opponents".

5.Settlement Strategies: (Any type of advice we can give you here completely depends on your specific situation, and the other applicants that are in your MX group...) There are a few ways to go about trying to settle your MX group.  Hopefully your engineer has been able to break you out of a huge daisy chain, so that you have fewer groups to deal with.  A lot of your strategy will be dependent on where you stand in the group.  Obviously if it looks like you have the strongest application, all you would gain from a settlement would be to make the whole process quicker (which can end up saving your  group money in the long run).   For the full power window, the FCC will only accept FULL settlements-meaning that every applicant in the MX group is part of the settlement.  This may prove difficult when many MX groups involve over ten applicants.

Your group will have to decide what you want your strategy to be.  If you do find deficiencies in your competitors' applications, you can either go to them and offer them some kind of time-share for dropping out.  The only risk in this is allowing them time to correct the problems in their applications that you're highlighting.   But you also have the chance that they may gladly accept a program once a week Sunday mornings instead of a long, drawn out process when they have a faulty application.  The second approach is to basically compile all of the information that you need to build a "Petition to Deny" against your top competitors, and then file those when they get named the tentative selectee.  With this approach they will have less time to respond, and will most likely not be able to make any changes to their application.  The down side is that this could all take years of long, drawn out legal battling.  So some things to consider if you do want to try to make a deal with the other groups in your MX group: Where does your application stand in relation to other applicants?  Would you be able to ethically/politically be comfortable making some kind of deal with these groups? Would you be okay with waiting 2-10 years through legal battles for your CP?

Finally, you also have the option of buying out your competition.  If you have a lot of money, you are able to approach the other groups and offer to buy them out-pay for their expenses in exchange for them withdrawing their applications.  Obviously an applicant who is not going to win will have more to gain in getting bought out, and it can speed up the process for the stronger application.  But it also takes a lot of money which most wonderful community radio groups don't have laying around.  If you do have the resources, it's something your group can look into.  

Researching Your Opponents

Listed below are some areas to research in your opponents' applications that may be used either as bargaining leverage for trying to bring about a settlement, or as material for a Petition to Deny.  Obviously the lawyer that helped you prepare your application is the person who should be doing any filings, as they are ve with your application and know how to use those big 'ol legal words.  This is the legwork that your group can do beforehand to make your group and your lawyer more prepared to fight for a CP.

1.  Is their application complete?  For example, many applications will claim 1st or 2nd service but they will lack the exhibits that support their claims.  Or some claim diversity points, but then also go on to claim yes on a statewide service.  Go over the application question by question, documenting every (possible) inaccuracy.  While an error like this may not come into play, it's definitely better to have all your information together.

2. Take a look at what tower the group is claiming on their application to have approval to use.  Contact the  actual owner of the tower to verify whether they actually have a written agreement that they have permission to use the tower.  If they do not, ask nicely to get a letter yourself stating this.  

3.  Does their application have Channel 6 TV interference (which basically means that their station would interfere with the broadcast of a TV station)?  Did they submit an exhibit in their application detailing how their station would mitigate the interference and stating the number of people affected by their Channel 6 interference (it must be less than 3,000)?
Some Channel 6 TV stations will be going digital in the near future, and so some applicants simply got letters from the TV stations saying this much.  The applicants then pledged to not go on the air until the Channel 6 TV station went digital.  Unfortunately the FCC doesn't accept this, as it works on a "snapshot" mentality--they don't care about what will happen in the future.  So if your competitor submitted one of these Channel 6 letter exhibits but didn't submit the engineering study mentioned above, then that can be grounds for the application getting dismissed.

4. Take a quick look at your competitor's proposed broadcast area.  Does the shape look extremely jagged or some bizarre shape?  There are physical limitations on what an antennae can do, and there are also legal limitations on how far you can just broadcast in one direction and not in another (creating a long thin sliver or a sharp point sticking out).  If you look over your competitors' engineering exhibits and a proposed radius looks like a unicorn jumping through the air, then bring the application to your engineer's attention and have them check if it's legally and physically possible.

5. Do some general research on the organization and the board members.  Find out as much as you can about them.  How long have they been around? What have they done in the past? What other groups are they connected to? Are their board members on the board of any other organizations? Do 75% of the board really live within 25 miles?
For actually researching the members of the board, you can start with a google search.  Make sure to try all kinds of combinations of their names.  For example you can  search  for: "first last" OR "first * last" OR "last, first".   If you want to find someone that might be listed somewhere with a middle name you can search "first * last" and it will fill in for a middle name.  

To see if either the board members or the organization itself has been in the news, try searching Factiva.  You'll need a friendly university student to give you access to it though.

Here are a few other people web search engines:
http://www.pipl.com -Pretty comprehensive people search.

http://www.zoominfo.com --Really good site for searching professionals and people with titles.

http://wink.com/ --Lets you search social networks.

http://www.zabasearch.com -- Free People Search by ZabaSearch! Has some out of date information, but some is useful.

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Where to get Assistance, Forms & Other Information
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Section I: Administrative and Non-Technical
A. Authorizations
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B. Station Logs/Records
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C. Copy of Rules
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D. Station Identification
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E. Local Program Origination
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F. Cross-Service Broadcasts
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Section II: Antenna Structures
A. Antenna Registration
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B. Antenna Specifics
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C. Tower Light Observations
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D. Painting/Lighting
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E. FAA Notifications
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F. Station Logs
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Section III: Technical
A. Power
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B. Power Determining Method
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C. Frequency
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D. Loss of Signal
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E. Transmitter Metering
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Section IV: Unattended Operation
A. Unattended
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Section V: Abbreviations
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Section VI: Glossary of Broadcast Terms
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Welcome to the FM Translator and Booster Station Self-Inspection Checklist.
The Enforcement Bureau (EB) of the FCC is committed to improving licensee compliance with the regulations governing FM Translators and Booster stations. We do this through a combination of educational and enforcement efforts. The enforcement effort usually involves an on-scene station inspection conducted by FCC personnel. Most on-scene inspections are conducted without prior notification to the station licensee.
This checklist has been developed to assist licensees in conducting a self-inspection of their station. It provides an opportunity for the licensee to review and correct any deficiencies associated with the operation of a station without an actual on-scene visit by the Commission.
While not all translator and booster station regulations are covered by this checklist, you will be able to assess your compliance with the most frequently violated regulations. Each question contains a reference to the relevant rule section(s) to facilitate your review. These references pertain to Title 47 Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.) Parts 11, 17, 73 and 74.
The following boxes are provided throughout the checklist to aid the licensee in determining the stations compliance:
YES. The station is in compliance with this item.
The station is not in compliance with this item. Corrective action is PENDING.
NOT APPLICABLE to this station. If this response is not provided then this question is applicable to all translator and booster stations.
All of the above responses are not applicable to every question. Only appropriate responses will be provided for each question.
You will note that the above responses do not include a "NO" answer. Any question in which a "NO" answer is applicable would be a violative condition requiring corrective action. Stations encountering such situations should take immediate steps to correct the problem.
On June 3, 1996, the FCC established a national call center in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. This call center is operated by the FCC Consumer and Governmental Affairs Bureau (CGB). This facility is capable of providing services for the hearing impaired and the center is staffed full-time with bi-lingual (English and Spanish) Specialists. The toll free telephone number for this call center is 1-888-CALLFCC (1-888-225-5322).
If you have any questions about this self inspection checklist or the applicability of any regulation to your operation, you may contact the FCC Call Center. DO NOT MAIL THIS CHECKLIST TO THE FCC FOR OUR REVIEW!
Information and materials pertaining to the Emergency Alert System (EAS) may be found through the FCC, Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau web page at http://www.fcc.gov/pshs/services/eas/index.html.
Requests for any FCC form or bulletin can be directed to the Commission's forms distribution contractor at 1-800-418-FORM (1-800-418-3676). This is a voice mail answering system. You should have the number of the form available when you call.
Some forms, bulletins and other documents, including a copy of this checklist, are also available through the Internet by visiting the FCC Homepage at "http://www.fcc.gov". Please check this Homepage for the latest update to the checklist. Some forms may also be filed through the use of the Internet.
The FCC, Media Bureau, Audio Division maintains a webpage at "http://www.fcc.gov/mb/audio". This page provides information relating to radio broadcast, including a list of current telephone numbers available for inquiries. Current rules pertaining to AM and FM stations are maintained at "http://www.fcc.gov/mb/audio/bickel/amfmrule.html". The rules pertaining to FM Translators and Boosters can be found at “http://www.fcc.gov/mb/audio/bickel/part74rule.html”. Some recent translator decisions and other translator/booster station items of interest can be found by visiting web pages at http://www.fcc.gov/mb/audio/decdoc/engrser.html#TRANSL.
The FCC maintains a fax on demand service at (202)418-2830. Through this service you may obtain information on the following: Daily Digest News Releases Speeches
Fact Sheets Current List of Events Public Notices Auctions
The government printing office (http://www.gpo.gov) maintains current copies of the Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.) in both printed and electronic form. A beta online version of Title 47 C.F.R. Parts 11, 17, 73 and 74 can be found at:
Part 11: http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&sid=dfb774ab024c5b210621bfdd118f08f1&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title47/47cfr11_main_02.tpl
Part 17: http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&sid=dfb774ab024c5b210621bfdd118f08f1&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title47/47cfr17_main_02.tpl
Part 73: http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&sid=dfb774ab024c5b210621bfdd118f08f1&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title47/47cfr73_main_02.tpl
Part 74: http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&sid=dfb774ab024c5b210621bfdd118f08f1&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title47/47cfr74_main_02.tpl
A. AUTHORIZATIONS: The station license, construction permit and/or any other instrument of authorization shall be kept in the station's record file. In addition, the call sign, together with the name, address, telephone number of the licensee or local representative of the licensee, the name and address of a person as well as the place where station records are maintained, shall be displayed at the translator or booster site so as to be visible to a person standing on the ground at the transmitter site. Such display shall be prepared so as to withstand normal weathering for a reasonable period of time and shall be maintained in legible condition. [See 74.1265(a&b)]
AUTHORIZATIONS: Are current station authorizations available in the station’s record file? [See 74.1265(a)]
DISPLAYED INFORMATION: Are the names and addresses of the licensee and of the person maintaining station records displayed at the translator/booster site where they are clearly visible? [See 74.1265(b)]
STATION LOGS include entries pertaining to equipment status, equipment calibration/maintenance and, when applicable, the recording of tower light outages. STATION RECORDS include, but are not limited to current station authorization(s), official correspondence with the FCC, contracts, permission for rebroadcasts, and other pertinent documents.
The station logs and records are to be kept at any accessible place in the community of license of the translator or booster station, or alternatively if the station is licensed to the same licensee of the primary station, then the files may be maintained where the primary station records are kept. The station records shall be made available upon request to any authorized representative of the Commission. Station logs and records are to be retained for a period of two years. [See 74.1281(a-d) and 74.1284(b)]
LOGS/RECORDS: Are required station logs retained for a period of 2 years?
[See 74.1281(d)]
AVAILABILITY: Are station logs/records readily available for inspection and/or duplication at the request of the FCC or its representatives? [See 74.1281(c)]
COMPLETENESS: Do the logs and records clearly and accurately document all repairs, changes and other maintenance performed on the station equipment during the past two years? [See 74.1281(a)]
REBROADCAST AUTHORITY: Does the station records include documentation showing prior consent permitting rebroadcast of the primary station’s broadcast signal? [See 74.1281(a) and 74.1284(b)]
NOTE: The documentation permitting rebroadcast of the primary station’s broadcast signal is only valid for the duration of ownership by the primary station licensee. Any change in ownership of the primary station would require new documentation permitting the rebroadcast of signals. In addition, stations should request a copy of the primary station license and subsequent renewals as part of the documentation authorizing the rebroadcast of signals.
SECTION I: Continued
C. COPIES OF RULES: Each licensee or permittee of a translator or booster station shall have a current copy of Title 47 C.F.R. Parts 0,1,2,17,73 and 74, and shall make the same available for use by the operator in charge. Such rules are printed annually by the Government Printing Office. See the GPO web site at http://www.gpo.gov/. [See 74.1269]
CURRENT COPY: Does the licensee/permittee have a current copy of the rules available? [See 74.1269]
D. STATION IDENTIFICATION: A translator station shall be identified by one of two methods:
(1) By arranging for the primary station to identify the translator station by call sign and location with three identifications made during each day. More ID’s may be given, but one ID is required between 7a.m.-9a.m., one between 12:55p.m.-1:05p.m., and one between 4p.m.-6p.m. time periods, local time. Stations which do not begin their broadcast before 9 a.m. shall make their first ID at the beginning of their broadcast day. Licensees using this form of ID shall also arrange for the primary station licensee to keep in its file, and to make available to FCC personnel, the translator’s call letters and location, giving the name, address and telephone number of the licensee or their service representative. The licensee is responsible for furnishing current information to the primary station licensee for this purpose. [See 74.1283(a) and (c)(1)]
(2) By transmitting the call sign in International Morse Code at least once each hour. Transmitters of translator stations of more than 1 watt transmitter output power (TPO) MUST be equipped with an automatic keying device that will transmit the call sign at least once each hour, unless the licensee has a firm agreement for the primary station to broadcast the call sign. (Note: A firm agreement should be in writing with a copy available for inspection) [See 74.1283(a) and (c)(2)]
Booster stations shall be identified by their primary stations by the broadcasting of the primary stations call signs and location. [See 73.1201 and 74.1283(e)]
IDENTIFICATION: Is the station identification made in accordance with 74.1283?
SECTION I: Continued
E. LOCAL PROGRAM ORIGINATION: Booster stations do not have authority to originate programming, but may provide locally generated signals for test purposes only. Translator stations may originate programming for emergency warnings of imminent danger and to seek or acknowledge financial support deemed necessary to the continued operation of the translator. Originations concerning financial support are limited to a total of 30 seconds an hour. [See 74.1231(g&h)]
ORIGINATION: Is the station in compliance with section 74.1231 concerning origination of programming?
F. CROSS-SERVICE BROADCASTS: An FM translator is not authorized to rebroadcast the transmissions of any class of station other than an FM broadcast station or another FM translator. Only one input and one output frequency will be assigned to each FM translator. FM Booster stations are authorized to amplify and reradiate signals on the same FM channel as the primary station they are associated with. [See 74.1201(f), 74.1202(a&c), 74.1232(c) and 74.1284(c)]
BROADCAST SERVICE: Is this station rebroadcasting an authorized FM station on an authorized FM channel? [See 74.1201, 74.1202, 74.1232 and 74.1284]
A. ANTENNA REGISTRATION: Most antenna structures that are higher than 60.96 meters (200 feet) above ground level or that may interfere with the flight path of a nearby airport must be studied by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and registered with the FCC. Owners are required to register their non-exempt tower structures with the FCC. All proposed and altered antenna structures must be registered prior to construction or alteration. For licensees this means that the tower must be registered before a new construction permit or license modification involving the tower or antenna is granted.
Licensees should be familiar with the painting and lighting specifications shown on their station authorization. In the event that the structure owner is unable to maintain the prescribed painting and lighting, e.g. in cases including but not limited to abandonment, negligence, or bankruptcy, the FCC would require that each tenant licensee on the structure undertake efforts to maintain painting and/or lighting. Additionally, if the licensee has reason to believe that the structure is not in compliance or that the owner is not carrying out its responsibility to maintain the structure, the licensee must immediately notify the owner, notify the site management company (if applicable), notify the FCC, and make a diligent effort to ensure that the antenna structure is brought into compliance.
Once a tower is registered, then the registration number is to be displayed in a conspicuous place that is readily visible near the base of the antenna structure. When the tower is located where the number cannot be seen without access to the property on which it is located, then the number should also be placed on the gate or fence leading to the tower where an outside observer can see it. Materials used to display the registration number must be weather-resistant and of sufficient size to be easily seen.
An informational FACT SHEET, PR5000-15, "ANTENNA STRUCTURE REGISTRATION", and the Antenna Structure Registration Form (FCC Form 854), may be obtained by contacting the FCC's Forms Distribution Center at (800)418-3676. This document will provide information on how to register a tower. Users may also visit the FCC's Internet Homepage at http://wireless.fcc.gov/antenna/ for up to date information on filing procedures, electronic filing and database access.
Registration: Has the owner of the tower on which the station antenna is mounted obtained registration for the structure? [See FACT SHEET - PR5000-15]
Posting of Number: Has the registration number been posted in an easily viewed location at the tower site? [See FACT SHEET - PR5000-15]
SECTION II: Continued
B. ANTENNA SPECIFICS: The construction permit, station license, or other instrument of authorization provides authority for the station to operate under a specific set of operating parameters. The licensee must thoroughly review the current station authorization, and where applicable the structure registration, to compare the listed specifications to the location, height, etc. that is actually used by this station. [See the Terms of the Station Authorization (TSA)]
OVERALL HEIGHT: Does the overall height of the structure match that specified in the station authorization and, where applicable, the structure registration? [See TSA]
ANTENNA: Does the number and height of the antenna bays match that specified in the station authorization? [See TSA]
LOCATION: Does the street address and geographical coordinates of the station transmitter/tower location match exactly with the information shown on the station authorization and, where applicable, the structure registration? [See TSA]
C. TOWER LIGHT OBSERVATIONS: The lighting on tower structures is to be observed at least once every 24 hours either visually or by observing an automatic indicating device; or alternatively the licensee/tower owner may provide and maintain an automatic alarm system to constantly monitor the lighting on a structure. All automatic or mechanical control devices, indicators, and alarm systems are required to be inspected at intervals NOT TO EXCEED 3 months. [See 17.47]
OBSERVATIONS: Is the lighting on the tower(s) observed at least once every 24 hours either visually or by observing an automatic indicating device; or alternatively has the licensee/tower owner provided and maintained an automatic alarm system? [See 17.47]
MAINTENANCE CHECKS: Have all automatic and/or mechanical control devices, indicators, and alarm systems associated with the antenna structure lighting been inspected within the last 3 months? [See 17.47]
SECTION II: Continued
D. PAINTING/LIGHTING: The station authorization and/or tower registration specifies the painting and lighting requirements for your operation. This is shown as a set of numbers or letters which correspond to paragraphs found on FCC Form 715 (Numbers - For towers with beacons and side lights) or 715A (Letters - For towers with strobed lighting), or the most current FAA Advisory Circular (currently AC 70/7460-1K) on Obstruction Marking and Lighting. If no painting or lighting is required, then the authorization will specify "NONE" or "NONE REQUIRED". Tower registration is only necessary when painting and/or lighting is required.
The licensee must make certain that the number and placement of paint bands and lighting match exactly with that specified in the tower registration. The tower owner/licensee should also be aware of the requirement to clean or repaint tower structures as often as necessary to maintain good visibility to aircraft.
[See Part 17 and TSA]
NOTE: One of the most common problems associated with tower painting is the feedlines that are on the outside legs of a tower. In many cases, the tower is painted correctly, but the solid black colored feedlines defeat the purpose of the painting by covering the outside legs of the tower. The tower owner/licensee should make certain that the feedlines are also painted in such instances. This does not apply in cases where the tower is authorized for strobe lighting.
PAINT SPECIFICATIONS: Does the painting on the tower structure(s) match the specifications in the station authorization? [See TSA]
PAINT BANDS: Does the structure have the correct number of bands and are the top and bottom bands painted aviation orange? [See Part 17]
LIGHTING SPECIFICATIONS: Does the lighting on the tower structure match exactly with the specifications in the station authorization? [See TSA]
E. FAA NOTIFICATIONS: The tower owner/licensee is to notify the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) at (Phone: 877-487-6867) within 30 minutes of the observation of an improper functioning or extinguished top steady burning light or ANY flashing obstruction light regardless of its position on the structure. Such improper functioning beacons include non-lighted beacons as well as those that are lighted, but non-flashing. Notification is to also be made immediately to the FAA once the beacon or steady burning top light is returned to service. Notification is not required when side light outages are observed. Tower owners/licensees should insure that the telephone number for the FAA is readily available and known to all personnel who would be responsible for notifying the FAA of such outages. [See 17.48]
FAA NOTIFICATION: Are the tower owner/licensee and all station operators aware of the requirement to notify the FAA within 30 minutes of the observation of an outage AND to notify the FAA again once the outage is corrected? [See 17.48]
SECTION II: Continued
F. STATION LOGS: For all stations operating from a tower owned by the licensee and which have authorizations that specify tower lighting, the tower owner/licensee is to make entries in the station log concerning ANY observed or otherwise known extinguishment or improper functioning of ANY tower light regardless of its position on the tower. [See 17.49, 73.1213 and 73.1820(a)(1)(i)] This log must contain the following:
a. The nature of such extinguishment or improper functioning.
b. The date and time the extinguishment or improper operation was observed or otherwise noted.
c. Date and time of FAA notification, required for outages of any flashing light.
d. The date, time and nature of adjustments, repairs or replacements made. This would include any work conducted as part of a system inspection or preventive maintenance program.
STATION LOGS: Does the tower owner/licensee maintain a station log containing entries concerning ANY observed or otherwise known extinguishment or improper functioning of ANY tower light? [See 17.49, 73.1213 and 73.1820(a)(1)(i)]
NOTE 1: Tower Owners/licensees should also log the date and time of quarterly inspections of lighting
systems as described in §17.47(b).
NOTE 2: Any extinguishment or improper functioning of a required tower light, regardless of its position on the tower, is to be corrected as soon as possible. See §17.49(b) and the terms of the structure registration. A structure is not in compliance with the structure registration if any required light is not functioning properly. However, violations are avoided by prompt and complete logging of the outage and by documenting that the efforts made to correct the condition are being done in a timely manner.
A. POWER: The maximum authorized effective radiated power (ERP) permitted for any translator is 250 watts, while the maximum ERP for a booster is 20% of the primary station’s maximum allowable ERP. In no event shall a translator or booster station be operated with a transmitter output power (TPO) in excess of 105% of that authorized. The power is to be maintained as near as practicable to the station's authorized power. [See 74.1235(a&e), 74.1263(c) and TSA]
In the event that it becomes technically impossible to operate, then a station may temporarily discontinue operation for a period of not more than 30 days without specific authority from the FCC. If operation is terminated for 10 consecutive days, then a notification must be sent to the FCC, Media Bureau, Audio Division, Washington, D.C. 20554 no later than the 10th day of the terminated operation. If normal power is restored prior to the expiration of the 30 day period, the licensee must notify the FCC upon restoration of normal operation.
OPERATING POWER: Is the station's operating power at 105% or less of that authorized? [See TSA, 74.1235 and 74.1263]
B. POWER DETERMINING METHOD: Translator and booster stations may not operate with a TPO in excess of the transmitter certificated power rating. If the station is authorized a TPO that is less than its transmitter certificated power rating, then power may be determined by either the direct or indirect method. The direct method of power determination uses the indications of a calibrated transmission line meter located at the RF output terminals of the transmitter. This meter must be calibrated whenever there is any indication that the calibration is inaccurate or whenever any component of the metering circuit is repaired or replaced.
[See 74.1235(e)]
The indirect method is determined by applying the appropriate factor to the input power to the last radio-frequency power amplifier stage of the transmitter, using the following formula:
Transmitter output power = Ep x Ip x F
Where: Ep = DC input voltage of final radio stage.
Ip = Total DC input current of final radio stage.
F = Efficiency factor of the transmitter.
The value of the efficiency factor, F, is to be determined and a record of its value is to be maintained and available upon request. [See 73.267]
Licensees must make certain that all duty operators know which method of power determination is being used and how to calculate the output power based on that method.
EFFICIENCY FACTOR: Is the efficiency factor known for each transmitter used and a record kept as to its value, along with the source from which this value was determined? [See 73.267(c)]
POWER METHOD: Are responsible station personnel able to determine the output power of this station using one of the methods described above?
[See 73.267 and 74.1235]
SECTION III: Continued
C. FREQUENCY: Stations with an authorized TPO of 10 watts or less shall maintain the center frequency within .01 percent of its assigned frequency. For stations with a TPO greater than 10 watts, the departure of the carrier or center frequency may not exceed 2000 Hz from that authorized. [See 73.1545 and 74.1261(a&b)]
FREQUENCY: Is the station in compliance with the frequency tolerance specified in 73.1545 and/or 74.1261?
NOTE: Stations are not required to provide a means for measuring the operating frequency of the transmitter as only equipment having the required stability will be approved for use. However, in the event that a station is found to be operating beyond the frequency tolerance specified, then the station shall promptly suspend operation and shall not resume until the station has been restored to its assigned frequency.
D. LOSS OF SIGNAL: For stations with authorized TPO of more than 1 watt, the transmitting system shall be equipped with automatic circuits to place the transmitter in a nonradiating condition when no input signal is being received. [See 74.1250(c)(4) and 74.1263(b)]
SIGNAL LOSS: Is automatic circuitry installed that will place the station in a non-radiating conditions when no input signal is being received?
[See 74.1250 and 74.1263]
E. TRANSMITTER METERING: The transmitting system apparatus shall contain automatic circuits to maintain the power output in conformance with §74.1235(e). If provision is included for adjusting the power output, then the normal operating constants shall be specified for operation at both the rated TPO and the minimum TPO at which the apparatus is designed to operate. The apparatus shall be equipped with suitable meters or meter jacks so that the operating constants can be measured while the apparatus is in operation. [See 74.1250(c)(3)]
METERING: Does the equipment at this station allow transmitter control personnel the capability of turning off the transmitter at any time the station is in operation? [See 73.1350(b)(2)]
OPERATING PARAMETERS: Does the licensee maintain necessary metering to determine compliance with power at this station? [See 74.1250(c)]
A. UNATTENDED: Translator and Booster stations may be operated without a designated person in attendance if the following requirements are met:
1) If the transmitter site cannot be reached promptly at all hours and in all seasons, then means shall be provided so that the transmitting apparatus can be turned on and off at will from a “point” which is readily accessible at all hours and in all seasons.
2) The transmitter shall also be equipped with suitable automatic circuits which will place it in a nonradiating condition in the absence of a signal on the input channel.
3) The on-and-off control, if at a location other than the transmitter site and the transmitting apparatus, shall be adequately protected against tampering by unauthorized persons.
4) The FCC, Media Bureau, Audio Division, 445 12th Street SW, Washington, DC 20554, shall be supplied by letter with the name, address and telephone number of a person or persons who may be contacted to secure suspension of operation of the translator promptly should such action be deemed necessary by the Commission. Such information shall be kept current by the licensee.
[See 74.1234(a)(1-4)]
NOTE: Notification to the Commission of a “point” other than the transmitter site shall be for a fixed location where responsible station personnel may be contacted during all hours of operation and in all seasons. The licensee must have the ability to terminate operation from this fixed point. Licensees may elect to have automated monitoring equipment installed which will contact designated station personnel via wireless telephones, pagers and other devices in an attempt to correct transmitter or tower lighting conditions prior to contacting personnel at a fixed location.
UNATTENDED: Does the licensee maintain a person on duty at a fixed location with the ability to turn the transmitting apparatus on or off, during all periods of station operation? [See 74.1234(a)(1)]
SILENT SENSE: Is the transmitter equipped with circuitry that will place it in a non-radiating condition in the absence of a signal? [See 74.1234(a)(2)]
NOTIFICATION: Has the licensee notified the Media Bureau in writing of the location of all control points other than the transmitter location? [See 74.1234(a)]
Amplitude Modulation
American National Standards Institute
Automatic Transmission System
Emergency Alert System
Educational FM Station
Effective Radiated Power
Transmitter Efficiency Factor
Federal Aviation Administration
Federal Communications Commission
Frequency Modulation
Local Marketing Agreement
ow Power FM Station
National Radio Systems Committee
Radio Frequency
Required Monthly Test (EAS)
Remote Pickup Unit
Required Weekly Test (EAS)
Subsidiary Communications Authorization
Special Temporary Authority
Transmitter Power Output
Terms of the Station Authorization
Television Broadcast
This Page Intentionally Left Blank
Amplitude Modulation (AM)
A type of transmission used in the standard radio broadcast band at 535-1705 kilohertz.
The amount of frequency spectrum a radio signal occupies.
Booster Station
Similar to translator stations, these stations provide supplementary service to areas in which direct reception of radio service is unsatisfactory due to distance or terrain. Booster stations operate on the same frequency, under same ownership and with 100% rebroadcast content of the main station they are associated with, but at 20% or less of the ain station’s power.
EAS Attention Signal
An audio signal using the two tone frequencies of 853 and 960 Hz which is transmitted by an EAS station to actuate muted receivers for interstation receipt of emergency cuing announcements and broadcasts.
EAS Operating Handbook
A booklet which states in summary form the actions to be taken by station personnel upon receipt of emergency action notification, termination, or test messages.
EAS Generator/Encoder
Equipment capable of generating the EAS attention signal for transmission.
EAS Monitor/Decoder
Equipment capable of receiving the EAS attention signal and emergency programming transmitted by other EAS stations.
EAS Tests
Tests conducted weekly/monthly by EAS stations to ensure that their EAS equipment is functioning properly.
Equipment Performance Measurements
Measurements performed to determine the overall performance characteristics of a broadcast transmission system from point of program origination to sampling of signal as radiated.
Experimental Period
The time between 12 midnight local time and local sunrise, used by AM broadcast stations for tests, maintenance and experimentation.
SECTION VII: Continued
Extension Metering
The meters used to provide indications of a sampled parameter of a broadcast station transmitting system. To be considered an extension meter and not a remote meter, it must be less than 100 feet from the transmitter and installed in the same building as the transmitter.
Field Strength
Electric field intensity, usually measured in millivolts per meter (mV/m) or in decibels above 1 microvolt per meter (dBu).
Frequency Modulation (FM)
A method of modulation where the amplitude remains constant and the frequency of the carrier wave is varied according to the modulating wave. The FM broadcast band covers 88-108 Megahertz.
Output Power
The radio frequency output power of a transmitter's final radio frequency stage as measured at the output terminal while connected to a load. Often referred to as TPO.
Public Inspection File
A publicly accessible file to be maintained by broadcast stations which contains documents pertaining to the station's licensing, ownership, and operation.
Remote Control
Operation by a properly designated person on duty at a control position from which the transmitter is not visible but that position is equipped with suitable controls so that essential functions can be performed.
Spurious Emissions
An emission on a frequency or frequencies which are outside the necessary bandwidth and the level of which may be reduced without affecting the corresponding transmission of information. Spurious emissions include harmonic emissions, parasitic emissions, intermodulation products and frequency conversion products.
Station Authorization
Any construction permit, license, special temporary authority, or any other authorization issued by the FCC.
Translator Station
Stations that provide supplementary service to areas in which direct reception of radio service is unsatisfactory due to distance or terrain barriers. Translators simultaneously rebroadcast the signal of a primary FM station on a different frequency. May be owned by same or different licensee than that of primary station.
SECTION VII: Continued
Time Brokerage
Sale by a licensee of discrete blocks of time to a broker who then supplies the programming to fill that time and sells the commercial spot announcements to support it.
Unattended Operation
Operation of a station by automatic means without the attention of a qualified operator

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